The Crossland X was introduced in 2017 as a replacement to the Opel/Vauxhall Meriva. It offers more crossover styling but similar practicality as its predecessor, as the segment of small MPVs has been shrinking in Europe, while small crossovers and SUVs continue to gain popularity across the continent. The Crossland X is based on the same platform as the Citroën C3 Aircross, which will be launched later. In Opel’s line-up, the Crossland X will be positioned below the Opel/Vauxhall Mokka X, but both compete in the same segment of small crossovers.
While the Ipanema clearly succeeded the Marajó, production of the Chevette (by now in sedan form only, the hatchback having been discontinued after the 1987 model year) and of the Kadett noticeably overlapped; the newer model was placed above the old one in Chevrolet's lineup. While Chevrolet entertained the possibility of a pick-up version of the Kadett E, it never materialized.

One of the most versatile small German military vehicles, the Kettenkrad, a blend of a tractor and a motorcycle, was powered with a 1.4 L Olympia four-cylinder engine. Produced by NSU, it had motorcycle-type front-wheel steering for gentle turns and negotiated tight corners with brakes on the propelling caterpillar tracks. The Kettenkrad towed antitank guns and transported troops and signal gear in several theatres of war. NSU continued to make it after the war for use in mines and forests. It was one of the few vehicles that could do jobs formerly performed by horses for which, owing to the shortage of oats, even less fuel was available than for motor vehicles.
That's distressing, but it's also distressing to see how far along GM and Saab dealers went with that plan. In a June 1990 article from Automotive News, even then-Opel chairman Louis Hughes said "There's quite a difference between the Calibra concept and the traditional Saab concept." That's about as close as any auto exec will get to saying "this car doesn't fit in with the brand, but we're going to badge it anyway." That Auto News story expected the car would be approved to go by the end of 1990, and that they'd be built in the same factory in Finland that turned out special Saabs like the 9-3 Viggen and all of the convertibles.
The range has a high level standard specification compared to similar vehicles from other manufacturers, including a lane departure warning system, cruise control, speed limiter, trip computer (instant MPG, average MPG, average speed, stop watch and trip computer), tyre pressure monitoring system, electronic stability program and traction control, front fog lamps and cornering lamps.
By 2000, when the new Corsa range was released, almost every engine that had been mounted on previous model gained 4-cylinder valve heads. Apart from an overall power output and fuel economy increase as well as body shell restyling, newer trims and equipment levels were introduced. The 1.0 - 12V Model was no longer availaale with only a choice of manual transmission with Opel having equipped the...
The Corsa A was known in the United Kingdom market as the Vauxhall Nova (as it was considered that Corsa sounded too much like "coarser"), where it was launched in April 1983, following a seven month long union dispute due to British workers being angry about the car not being built there[6] whilst British built cars were subject to huge import tariffs in Spain prior to its entry into the European Community.[citation needed]
This time it was from simply wearing them out, but my 18 year old mother had no idea that tires were something you had to replace. “You don’t have to replace the doors or the wheels or the windshield, why would you have to replace the tires, it’s just part of the car,” she had reasoned. She’s a whip-smart lady but somehow had missed that one. Her father had hilariously taught her how to change a tire (by making her figure it out on the street downtown while everyone they knew drove by and offered to help, as he turned them away one by one while the 5’2″, 90 lb teenager did it herself) but I guess kids think they know everything.
Exceptions to the nomenclature of ending names with an "a" include the under-licence built Monterey, the Speedster (also known as the Vauxhall VX220 in Great Britain), GT (which was not sold at all as a Vauxhall, despite the VX Lightning concept), the Signum, Karl, and the Adam. The Adam was initially supposed to be called, "Junior" as was its developmental codename and because the name 'Adam' had no history/importance to the Vauxhall marque.
By 1970, the Kadett’s brief stay in the US import car rank number two was over, having been muscled aside by Toyota’s hot new redesigned Corolla (CC here). The Corolla was very much a car in the Kadett’s formula: traditional rwd and conventional in every respect. But the combination of a high D-Mark, and Toyota’s hot momentum changed the tide forever. In the US, the Corolla would soon enough depose VW out of the top slot. In Germany, the Beetles rapid crash and the Kadett’s success forced VW’s hand with the very advanced Golf, recouping the gold. The Kadett/Astra were the perennial number two in germany, but some years ago, it dropped further down the the top seller list, as smaller cars, including Opel’s Corsa have become more popular. But the Golf still sits on the throne.
As in the 1993 released cars' case, there were no notable differences between the 3 and the 5-door versions except a larger wheelbase and slight cargo volume increase. The choice of engines was kept the same with only a few upgrades having been made, leading to the introduction of new equipment levels such as the 1.4 i 16 V Strada and Onyx. As for the Diesel engines, the 1.7 Liter were kept...

In April 1993, the Corsa B was unveiled and in the United Kingdom Vauxhall dropped the Nova name, with the car from now being known as the Corsa.[21] In May 1994, it was launched by Holden in Australia, as the Barina, replacing a version of the Suzuki Swift sold under that name.[22] This proved a success, and was the first Spanish built car to be sold in significant volumes in the Australian market.[23]
For 1937 the Kadett was offered as a small and unpretentious[1] two door "Limousine" (sedan/saloon) or, at the same list price of 2,100 Marks, as a soft top "Cabrio-Limousine". The body resembled that of the existing larger Opel Olympia and its silhouette reflected the "streamlining" tendencies of the time. The 1,074cc side-valve engine came from the 1935 Opel P4 and came with the same listed maximum power output of 23 PS (17 kW; 23 hp) at 3,400 rpm.[2]
Journeys can be made even more relaxing and safer with the numerous ultra-modern technologies and assistance system available with the new Opel Crossland X. Innovative full LED headlamps ensures outstanding visibility in the dark. The optional head up display reduces the danger of distractions and projects the most important data on speed, navigation and assistance systems into the driver’s direct line of sight.
As the war progressed, military authorities placed greater stress on the development of air-cooled engines, which they felt had more immunity to damage from weather, shellfire, and misuse. To meet this demand, Opel engineers developed an unusual variation on normal cooling for the 3.6 L truck engine. It was called "air-oil cooling", and used engine oil to take heat away from the jackets around the cylinder barrels. The heads were directly cooled by air, there being three separate aluminium finned heads, each serving two cylinders. Of this interesting engine, which developed 72 hp (54 kW; 73 PS) at 3,000 rpm on 74-octane fuel, only three examples were built.
At the first round of the season held at the former Grand Prix track of Zolder in Belgium, Opel Team Joest’s misfortunes continued. Manuel Reuter retired in the early stages, with both John Winter (16th) and Keke Rosberg finishing a lap down on winner Alessandro Nannini (ITA) in the Alfa. Race 2 was more positive however, with only John Winter dropping early on. Reuter lead the Opel charge in 7th, with Rosberg in 10th.
Datorită poziției înalte de ședere, Crossland X oferă mai mult decât o vizibilitate mai bună. Datorită scaunelor sale ergonomice speciale (certificate de „Campania pentru un spate sănătos”), Crossland asigură o postură sănătoasă în timpul conducerii. Un autovehicul adaptat nevoilor tale, confortabil pentru toți ocupanții datorită pernelor, spătarelor și tetierelor reglabile.
SÆLGES MED 12 MDR GARANTI OG FEJLFRI BRUGTBILSATTEST! Se Mere På Www.100Autotjek.Dk, Airc., Fjernb. C.Lås, Fartpilot, Kørecomputer, Infocenter, Sædevarme, Højdejust. Forsæde, El-Ruder, Automatisk Start/Stop, Cd/Radio, Håndfrit Til Mobil, Multifunktionsrat, Varme I Rat, Cityservo, Bagagerumsdækken, Kopholder, Læderrat, 6 Airbags, Abs, Esp, Hvide Blink, Indfarvede Kofangere, Ikke Ryger, Attraktiv Finansiering Tilbydes Også Uden Udbetaling, Se Flere Gode Tilbud På Www.Ramsdalbiler.Dk, Ring For Besigtigelse På Tlf 30113762
This new category, Group A, featured very stringent homologation requirements. In order to qualify for competition, the competing model needed to be produced at least 25,000 times. Furthermore, the FIA required ten percent of these cars to be a specialty model, with another 500 allowed as “Evolution” models. If the 25,000 car limit had not yet been met, the new model had to attain a production number of at least 5000 units a year.
The Corsa Van is a car derived van based on the corresponding generation of the Corsa superminis. It first appeared in 1983, and was unchanged from the regular car, aside from the panelled rear windows (optional, glazed models were also available) and the missing rear seat. This was replaced by a flat metal loading floor. Payload of the original Corsa A is 405 kg (893 lb) and the entire range of engines was available at first.[56]
This Chevette went throu several redesigns — first front an rear panels seemilar tae the Opel version, then a leuk seemilar tae the Breetish Vauxhall Chevette, an finally a design reminiscent o the updatit USA Chevrolet Chevette version. It wis available in several different bodies: hatchback (1979–87), estate (cawed Chevrolet Marajó, 1980–89), pickup (Chevy 500, 1984–95) an saloon (1973–93). The Chevette sauld ower 1.6 million units in Brazil, bein replaced bi the Chevrolet Corsa.
In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to buy Opel, its British sister brand Vauxhall and their European auto lending business from General Motors for US$2.2 billion.[32][33] In return, General Motors will pay PSA US$3.2 billion for future European pension obligations and keep managing US$9.8 billion worth of plans for existing retirees. Furthermore, GM is responsible for paying about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing Great Britain and Germany pension plans.[32]
Opel was marketed in Malaysia beginning from the 1970s, and early models exported were Kadett, Gemini, and Manta. Opel had moderate sales from the 1980s until the early 2000s, when Malaysian car buyers favoured Japanese and Korean brand cars such as Toyota, Honda, Hyundai (Inokom) and Kia (Naza), which offered more competitive prices. Sales of Opel cars in Malaysia were dropped then, as Opel's prices were slightly higher than the same-segment Japanese, Korean, and local Proton and Perodua cars, and they were hard to maintain, had bad aftersales services, and spare parts were not readily available.

The Kadett D wis introduced in November 1979, goin on sale in the UK some five months afore the Breetish version, the Vauxhall Astra Mark 1, wis launcht in Aprile 1980. Aw models wur designed as three- or five-door hatchbacks an estates or station wagons. Thare wur an aa twa- an fower-door sedans, which uised the same bodyshells as the hatchbacks, but thir wur suin dropped. An aa dropt, in comparison tae the C Modell wis the Coupé.
Her Får Du En Utrolig Veludstyret Og Velkørende Bil Som Er Ret Ny Og Til En Pris Der Er Til At Betale. Opel Karl Giver En Utrolig Høj Værdi For Penge. Den Praktiske Udnyttelse Af Bilen Plads Giver En Utrolig Rumlighed På Trods Af Bilens Faktiske Størrelse. Efter Vores Mening En Yderst Kompetent Pendlerbil Der Også Kan Køre Mange Kilometer På Motorvejen. Udvalgt Udstyr: Aircondition, Fartpilot, Bluetooth, Håndfrit Til Mobil, Multifunktionsrat, Fjernb. C.Lås, Kørecomputer, Infocenter, Udv. Temp. Måler, Sædevarme, Højdejust. Forsæde, Isofix, Kopholder, Stofindtræk, Læderrat, 6 Airbags, Abs, Antispin, Esp, Servo, 1 Ejer

The Kadett’s role in facilitating that is a major piece of automotive history I’ve been wanting to tell for years, but finding a Kadett in this country has been impossible, despite Opel having dumped almost half a million on our shores. It took my son’s recent trip to the old country to find one, sitting on the street in Innsbruck, no less. Maybe folks back there have a greater appreciation for Kadetts and the role they played; Americans’ fling with the Kadett was a very fleeting one, and perhaps many would just as soon forget it. Not me.

In 1957 Opel Product Director Karl Stief wis mandatit bi General Motors headquarters in Detroit tae develop "the perfect Anti-Volkswagen" ("einen perfekten Anti-VW"). The development team wis heidit up bi Stief, supportit bi Hans Mersheimer (caur-body) an Werner K. Strobel (ingine an runnin gear), unner conditions o sic secrecy that even nou vera little is kent o the development history o the 1962 Kadett. 649,512 o caurs haed been biggit at the company's new Bochum factory bi the time it wis replaced in Julie 1965.
At the end of last year, Opel announced its intention to open the order books for the new electric Corsa and the Grandland X as PHEV in the first half of 2019. The Corsa is likely to have the same technical data as the DS 3 Crossback, and indeed Opel will enable reservations this 4 June. Lohscheller promised a competitive price for the market launch, which could be as early as December: “With the new Corsa, we are making e-mobility affordable for a wide range of customers. This will be a real “‘Volks’ electric car,” promised the CEO, clearly with a thought or two of rivalling VW. The latter launched the ‘E-mobility for all’ campaign followed by the First Edition ID.3 not even a week ago, accompanied by statements such as “We don’t produce for millionaires, but for millions”.
In November 2010, a facelift was announced. A revised front end was the most dramatic difference over its predecessor, consisting of a new grille, a restyled front bumper and new 'Eagle Eye' headlamps (introduced on the Insignia) which contain daytime running lamps, standard across the refreshed Corsa range. (Vauxhall versions gained the latest badge from 2008 on the front grille, tailgate and steering wheel). A new 'Touch and Connect' multimedia system from Bosch was made available as an option on certain Corsas, replacing the CD60 unit.[47] Alloy wheels are upgraded on SXI, SE and OPC/VXR versions. Production ended in the end of 2014, with the Adam styled Corsa E released.[48] 

The Corsa C was manufactured and sold in South America. The production plant that produced this car model is located in Rosario, Argentina. The Latin American Corsa C featured the Opel inspired Chevrolet logo with a golden bowtie instead of a chromed one – the new logo was first introduced in the South American market with the new Chevrolet Vectra.

Obviously, the marketing and advertisement was quite different in Germany, and the “Das Auto” campaign was quite successful indeed. Unfortunately, I don’t have ready access to the statistics, but at some point in the Kadett B’s lengthy run from 1966 – 1973, it did unseat the Beetle as Germany’s best selling car. By the late sixties, the Germans were ready to move on, and it was straight into the Kadett’s open doors, as well as Ford’s new Escort, a Kadett-fighter through and through. In all, some 2.7 million Kadett Bs were produced, probably the high point of its life as both the Kadett and successor Astra.
Replacing the orange for radiant tones of red and teal blue everywhere, it was the same in Brazil. I miss those days… at least when the loans got popularity we still could buy funny and long lasting products (Philips included) however today… I’m not surprised the 70’s and 80’s music are still popular as the cars of that time, everything today is carefully made to make us bored.

The manufacturer now offered two versions of the Kadett, designated the "Kadett KJ38 and the "Kadett K38" the latter also being sold as the "Kadett Spezial". Mechanically and in terms of published performance there was little to differentiate the two, but the "Spezial" had a chrome stripe below the window line, and extra external body trim in other areas such as on the front grill. The interior of the "Spezial" was also better equipped. To the extent that the 300 Mark saving for buyers of the car reflected reduced production costs, the major difference was that the more basic "KJ38" lost the synchromous springing with which the car had been launched, and which continued to be fitted on the "Spezial". The base car instead reverted to traditional rigid axle based suspension similar to that fitted on the old Opel P4.
Other events which would powerfully affect Opel's future were taking place in 1948. In February and March, a GM study group came to Germany to investigate every aspect of Europe's economic situation and Opel's special problems. On their return, they submitted a report on 26 March recommending that General Motors resume control of Opel. On 5 April, however, GM's financial policy committee concluded, "in view of the many uncertainties surrounding the operation of this property, the Corporation is not justified in resuming the responsibility for its operation at this time..." GM, it seemed, did not want Opel.
Depending on the model version, the Corsa is as suited to singles and couples as to whole families. So it comes as no surprise that more than 13.5 million units have been produced since 1982. “The Corsa remains one of our most important models across Europe”, says Xavier Duchemin, Managing Director Sales, Aftersales and Marketing. The bestseller therefore plays a leading role in this anniversary year. “Opel has been democratising mobility for 120 years”, added Duchemin. “In our cars we make pioneering technology and comfort features affordable for all. This is what we stand for and the best example of this is the Corsa! Our anniversary model line-up has the right car for everyone – with extensive equipment and at best prices.”
The Corsa GSi family was founded in 1988 by the 100 hp Corsa A (now a much sought-after classic) Then came the Corsa B GSi 16V with 109 hp and a powerful low-end torque characteristic, the Corsa C GSi with 125 hp and a top speed of 202 km/h, and from 2007 the Corsa D GSi, for the first time with turbocharging and 150 hp from 1,600 cubic centimetres. In August 2012 Opel and the Corsa took a break from the GSi – until September 2017. At the Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA), the Opel Insignia GSi celebrated its world premiere and the GSi label its comeback. And now, one year later, the Corsa GSi has returned too.
Another unique aspect to Opel nomenclature is its use of the "Caravan" (originally styled as 'Car-A-Van') name to denote its station wagon body configuration, (similar to Volkswagen's Variant or Audi's Avant designations), a practice the company observed for many decades, which finally ceased with the 2008 Insignia and 2009 Astra, where the name "Sports Tourer" is now used for the estate/station wagon versions.
The Opel Corsa is a supermini car[1][2][3] engineered and produced by the German automobile manufacturer Opel since 1982. It has been sold under a variety of other brands (most notably Vauxhall, Chevrolet, and Holden) and also spawned various derivatives in different markets. Its current fifth generation is built in Spain and in Germany. However, despite its global presence, it has never been sold in the United States or Canada.

The Crossland X is actually built on an updated version of the Peugeot 2008’s underpinnings and has Peugeot-Citroen-DS engines. It’s a joint-venture with the French company, and the other half of that venture is the Citroen C3 Aircross, due a month or two later. The C3 Aircross, just like the Crossland X, is a pseudo-crossover designed to replace an MPV – in that case the C3 Picasso.


The Kadett D wis introduced in November 1979, goin on sale in the UK some five months afore the Breetish version, the Vauxhall Astra Mark 1, wis launcht in Aprile 1980. Aw models wur designed as three- or five-door hatchbacks an estates or station wagons. Thare wur an aa twa- an fower-door sedans, which uised the same bodyshells as the hatchbacks, but thir wur suin dropped. An aa dropt, in comparison tae the C Modell wis the Coupé.

Speaking of which, our speculative render of the next Corsa builds upon the styling langue implemented by the Rüsselsheim-based marque for the pair of crossovers, but adapted to better suit a supermini. It’s unclear at this point whether the styling direction will change now that Opel is underneath PSA’s umbrella, but it could happen considering the underpinnings are significantly being modified.
The Kadett C the day is a cult caur in Germany, especially in fastback (coupé) form. The maist sought efter versions o the Kadett C Coupé are the Rallye an GT/E models. Thir models wur biggit first wi the Bosch fuel injectit 1897 cc OHC (ower-heid cam) Opel ingine, an follaed bi the updatit 1998 cc OHC ingine. Conversions uisin the newer GM Family II ingine are common.
Opel campaigned the car extensively in motorsport too. The rally version was uncompetitive, but Opel eagerly waded into the 160mph traffic jam that was the International Touring Car Championship. The ITCC was created from the German DTM series, in which Opel had struggled. A rule change allowed Opel to use a new 480bhp V6 derived from the road car. The resultant four-wheel-drive monster carried Manuel Reuter to the 1996 ITCC driver's crown and Opel won the manufacturers' gong, beating Alfa Romeo and Mercedes-Benz. It was the Calibra's finest hour. 

The case of the Saab Calibra is one I'm glad didn't pan out, but I wish the car had made it here somehow. Even weirder than this was a plan to sell the Opel Senator through Porsche dealers in the late '80s, after GM's dealers were uninterested because their lots were full of Park Avenues and didn't need another luxo-barge competing. Strange, too, since the company was willing to sell that car as an Opel until the cost of importing became too strong. That likely killed the math for sending the Calibra here, too.

Opel has teased the arrival of its all-new supermini, the 2019 Corsa, with a single image on its social media. Captioned with "Revolutionary. Electrifying. Accessible!" on Twitter, the picture shows the car's headlight and... actually, it's just a headlight. The daytime-running light signature borrows heavily from the GT X Experimental concept, with its angular, inverted Nike 'Swoosh' design...
New Opel Crossland X SUV For SaleThe new Opel Crossland X, now available from Williams Hunt, combines the practical aspects of an SUV with the sleek styling and interior innovation of a cutting-edge urban car. Flexible, stylish and ready to hit the road at a moment's notice, it makes the ideal family car with ample cargo space for weekends away and weekly shopping trips, as well as a spacious cabin with plenty of room to stretch out while you explore.
The Kadett B was launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show in late summer 1965,[9][10] The Kadett B was larger all-round than the Kadett A: 5% longer both overall and in terms of the wheelbase, 7% wider and 9% heavier (unladen weight), albeit 10 mm (0.39 in) lower in basic standard "Limousine" (sedan/saloon) form.[11] Production ended in July 1973, with the successor model introduced a month later following the summer shut-down, in August. The two-seat Opel GT was heavily based on Kadett B components, its body made by a French contractor, Brissonneau & Lotz, at their Creil factory.
The suspension and brakes got some serious attention too, and the Rally 1900 was quite the sensation in its brief heyday, and garnered a very positive review by Car and Driver. (see related story on C/D’s Opel Kadett assassination story). Until the Ascona/Opel 1900 (CC here) came along in about 1971, the Rally carried a bright flame for Opel. The Ascona had been planned as a replacement for the Kadett, but when Ford launched their very bare-bones Escort, Opel kept the Kadett on, although at least in the US, it reverted to a very basic trim level and only with the 1100 cc motor, and sales swooned, due to rising prices as a result of the falling dollar.
^ Jump up to: a b c Note: The powertrain plant Opel Wien GmbH in Aspern/Vienna (Austria) is not a subsidiary of Adam Opel AG but a first-tier subsidiary of General Motors Europe Limited (GME) (99.5%) and of GM AUTOMOTIVE UK (GMAUK) (0.5%), see "Opel Wien GmbH, FN 110500a". FirmenABC Marketing GmbH. Retrieved 3 April 2017. Both, GME and GMAUK, are located in Luton. GME Ltd. itself is a daughter company of GM CME Holdings CV, which is directly controlled by the General Motors Corporation (GMC), see "Name: GENERAL MOTORS EUROPE LIMITED, Company Number: 07556915". Company search, Made Simple Group Ltd. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Explore 2019 Mercedes Benz S550, performance and technology features. See models and pricing, as well as photos and videos. We reviews the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 Price where consumers can find detailed information on specs, fuel economy, transmission and safety. Inside, the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 is equally cluttered. Its dashboard is upright and puts local weather and audio controls […]
The Corsa Van is a car derived van based on the corresponding generation of the Corsa superminis. It first appeared in 1983, and was unchanged from the regular car, aside from the panelled rear windows (optional, glazed models were also available) and the missing rear seat. This was replaced by a flat metal loading floor. Payload of the original Corsa A is 405 kg (893 lb) and the entire range of engines was available at first.[56]
As a German living in Germany, I join in the question “Where did they all go?”. Even in Germany you won`t find many Opel Kadetts “A-D”, the D-Kadett was built until 1984, being regularly driven anymore. Even at classic car shows that my wife and me attend with our cars you are sure to see at least about 30 vintage Porsche 911 or Mercedes SL for every Opel Kadett oder rear-wheel-drive (built until 1980) Ford Escort.
You may remember the beloved Opel Kadett A named “Oliver” that Richard Hammond of Top Gear fame slogged through the Makgadikgadi Salt Pan of Botswana. He became so attached to the little car that he had it restored and owns it to this day. Hammond’s love of this classic comes with good cause as it was a secret weapon of Opel developed specifically to invade the dominance of Volkswagen during the 1960s. Even though it delivered similar levels of horsepower (around 40 hp) it did offer better heating as well as more interior and luggage space. The Kadett’s popularity and engine reliability provided a resurgence for Opel and the car was exported to many countries including the United States. Whether you punish yours in the muck and mud or reserve your driving strictly to the road is entirely up to you.
The Kadett A (above) finally appeared in 1962, and was a classic GM/Opel effort: highly pragmatic, conventional in every respect, reasonably stylish for its time, and designed to deliver a good bang for the buck. In just about every way possible, it was the antithesis of the VW: front-engine rwd, a rather tinny but roomy body, highly tossable but with a primitive suspension and ride, a very roomy trunk, and excellent visibility as well as economy. Oh, and a proper heater even! Its little 987 cc OHV four made 40 net/46 gross hp, six more than the VW 1200. Its trim fighting weight of 1475 lbs (670 kg), some two hundred pounds less than the VW, showed in both its acceleration and body integrity.
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