Explore 2019 Mercedes Benz S550, performance and technology features. See models and pricing, as well as photos and videos. We reviews the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 Price where consumers can find detailed information on specs, fuel economy, transmission and safety. Inside, the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 is equally cluttered. Its dashboard is upright and puts local weather and audio controls […]
Airc., Fjernb. C.Lås, Parkeringssensor I Bag, Fartpilot, Kørecomputer, Infocenter, Startspærre, Udv. Temp. Måler, Sædevarme, Varme I Rat, Højdejust. Forsæde, El-Ruder, El-Spejle M/Varme, Automatisk Start/Stop, Cd/Radio, Multifunktionsrat, Håndfrit Til Mobil, Bluetooth, Isofix, Bagagerumsdækken, Kopholder, Stofindtræk, Splitbagsæde, Læderrat, 6 Airbags, Abs, Antispin, Esp, Servo, Ikke Ryger, Service Ok, Tidligere Undervognsbehandlet
The Kadett’s role in facilitating that is a major piece of automotive history I’ve been wanting to tell for years, but finding a Kadett in this country has been impossible, despite Opel having dumped almost half a million on our shores. It took my son’s recent trip to the old country to find one, sitting on the street in Innsbruck, no less. Maybe folks back there have a greater appreciation for Kadetts and the role they played; Americans’ fling with the Kadett was a very fleeting one, and perhaps many would just as soon forget it. Not me. 

The Corsa in particular will give Opel additional impetus this year. The bestseller, the first generation of which made its world premiere 37 years ago, will be available for the first time with a purely electric variant. Lohscheller promises that the pricing will be competitive: “With the new Corsa we will make electric mobility accessible to many customers – it will be a real electric car for the people.”

There were two Opel-franchised assembly plants in Ireland in the 1960s. One in Ringsend, Dublin, was operated by Reg Armstrong Motors, which also assembled NSU cars and motorcycles. The second assembly plant was based in Cork and operated by O'Shea's, which also assembled Škoda cars and Zetor tractors.The models assembled were the Kadett and the Rekord. From 1966, the Admiral was imported as a fully built unit and became a popular seller.
Both the Opel Karl and its Vauxhall Viva twin will be built alongside the new Spark in South Korea. Looking at the Opel’s measurements, we can see that the new 2016 Chevrolet Spark’s footprint will grow ever so slightly, with a 0.4-inch longer wheelbase and a 0.2-inch longer overall length. The new car’s roof is 3 inch lower overall, and the car could also weigh around 200 lb less than today’s model if the Karl’s 2070 lb curb weight is indicative of the U.S.-spec 2016 Spark’s specification.
I bought a 1971 Opel station wagon (new). I drove this car for over 20 years – to work and fishing and hunting trips. I loved it. The odometer was showing right at 250,000 miles when she finally gave up the ghost. Got a 3 inch piece of the rear axle on my computer desk right now…not just for a paper weight, but as a connection to the past, before my hair turned gray.
In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to buy Opel, its British sister brand Vauxhall and their European auto lending business from General Motors for US$2.2 billion.[32][33] In return, General Motors will pay PSA US$3.2 billion for future European pension obligations and keep managing US$9.8 billion worth of plans for existing retirees. Furthermore, GM is responsible for paying about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing Great Britain and Germany pension plans.[32]
Opel operates 10 vehicle, powertrain, and component plants and four development and test centres in six countries, and employs around 30,000 people in Europe. The brand sells vehicles in more than 60 markets worldwide. Other plants are in Eisenach and Kaiserslautern, Germany; Szentgotthárd, Hungary; Zaragoza, Spain; Gliwice, and Tychy, Poland; Aspern, Austria; Ellesmere Port, and Luton, Great Britain.[37] The Dudenhofen Test Center is located near the company's headquarters and is responsible for all technical testing and vehicle validations.
¹Opțional. Funcționează automat între 5 km/h și 85 km/h. Între 5 și 30 km/h, decelerarea pentru reducerea vitezei de impact este de 0,9 g. Într 30 și 85 km/h, sistemul reduce viteza cu maxim 22 km/h. După acest prag, șoferul trebuie să frâneze singur pentru a reduce și mai mult viteza. Gama de viteze de funcționare a AEBPD depinde de obstacolul detectat (mobil: între 5 și 85 km/h; fix: între 5 și 80 km/h; pietoni: între 5 și 60 km/h). Sistemele Opel de asistență pentru șofer au rolul de a asista șoferul în cadrul limitărilor imanente ale sistemului. Șoferul rămâne responsabil pentru sarcinile conducerii. Se preconizează că va fi disponibil din toamna anului 2017.
Whether you're using the standard or 180° panorama review camera, you enjoy better vision of what's behind and around you. This helps you detect any potential hazards that may be behind or in your blind spots. With the zoom functionality, you get to see objects even better as it automatically switches on to objects closer than 70cm. Coupled with Advanced Park Assist, you can parallel park and exit parking spots handsfree.
The case of the Saab Calibra is one I'm glad didn't pan out, but I wish the car had made it here somehow. Even weirder than this was a plan to sell the Opel Senator through Porsche dealers in the late '80s, after GM's dealers were uninterested because their lots were full of Park Avenues and didn't need another luxo-barge competing. Strange, too, since the company was willing to sell that car as an Opel until the cost of importing became too strong. That likely killed the math for sending the Calibra here, too.

This time it was from simply wearing them out, but my 18 year old mother had no idea that tires were something you had to replace. “You don’t have to replace the doors or the wheels or the windshield, why would you have to replace the tires, it’s just part of the car,” she had reasoned. She’s a whip-smart lady but somehow had missed that one. Her father had hilariously taught her how to change a tire (by making her figure it out on the street downtown while everyone they knew drove by and offered to help, as he turned them away one by one while the 5’2″, 90 lb teenager did it herself) but I guess kids think they know everything.


Opel will already open the order books for two new electrified models in the first half of 2019 – for the battery electric version of the next Corsa, and for the Grandland X SUV as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. “Opel is going electric!” said Opel CEO, Michael Lohscheller. “That is what we announced at the presentation of our PACE! strategic plan in November 2017, and now we are delivering.”
The Corsa C was introduced with a 1.7 L DTI Ecotec turbodiesel engine supplied by Isuzu (Circle L) with 75 hp (55 kW). This was later joined by the 1.7 L DI Ecotec turbodiesel engine also supplied by Isuzu. The 1.7 L DI Ecotec did not include an intercooler and this reduced power to 65 PS (48 kW).[38] From 2003, a new 1.3 L CDTI Ecotec turbodiesel engine was supplied by Fiat (MultiJet) which produced 70 PS (51 kW) and a 1.7 L CDTI Ecotec turbodiesel was supplied by Isuzu which produced 100 PS (74 kW). This new 1.7 L CDTI Ecotec featured a variable geometry turbocharger.[39]
In the US, the 1968 Kadett took on the Olympia’s grille and there were other changes too. The Olympia and the US Kadett now were available with the bigger “high-cam” four, in 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 liter versions (no 1.7 for the US). This changed the performance equation considerably, especially in the new Rally 1900, which had a new fastback to go along with its big jump in power. The 1.9 was rated at 102 (gross) and 90 (DIN-net) hp, and there was nothing that could touch it in its class. This was the equivalent of dropping the big block V8s in the GM midsize cars, the German Chevelle SS 396.
It formed the basis o the Daewoo LeMans (later kent as the Daewoo Cielo, Racer an Nexia) in Sooth Korea, an an' a' as Heaven in Chile (Nexia bein the HB version), which wis sauld in the Unitit States an New Zealand as the Pontiac LeMans, an in Canadae (initially) as the Passport Optima. LeMans sales endit in 1993. The Nexia is still bein produced at UzDaewoo plant in Asaka, Uzbekistan. The Cielo wis last bein produced at Automobile Craiova, a semi-independent (frae GM) plant in Craiova, Romanie (the license expired in Hairst 2006).
The Kadett C the day is a cult caur in Germany, especially in fastback (coupé) form. The maist sought efter versions o the Kadett C Coupé are the Rallye an GT/E models. Thir models wur biggit first wi the Bosch fuel injectit 1897 cc OHC (ower-heid cam) Opel ingine, an follaed bi the updatit 1998 cc OHC ingine. Conversions uisin the newer GM Family II ingine are common.
Automatic Emergency Braking with Pedestrian Detection works automatically at speeds between 5 and 140km/h. For speeds between 5 and 30km/h a 0.9g deceleration is applied to reduce the impact speed of the collision. For speeds of 30 to 140km/h the system reduces the speed by up to 50km/h. To reduce speed by over 50km/h the driver needs to provide additional braking. The operational speed range depends on the type of obstacle detected:
The Crossland X perfectly fits to your lifestyle, offering exceptional versatility and the storage space of a SUV – for whatever your day brings. You're never short of space, as you can increase the Crossland X's space from 410 litres to 1,255 litres. Featuring split foldable and slideable rear seats, you can slide them to get up to 520 litres of boot space or fold them at a ratio of 40/60 and achieve 1,255 litres. Even longer objects can fit in with the foldable armrests 
The saloon model was built and sold in Latin America as the Chevrolet Corsa Classic until 2010, when it was replaced with the model previously released for China in 2005 as the Buick Sail. A budget version introduced for the Brazilian market, the Chevrolet Celta, has bodywork resembling the end of the 1990s Vectra and Astra. The Celta was sold in Argentina as the Suzuki Fun for a certain period.
The origin of the lightning in the 2012 Opel logo lies in the truck Opel Blitz (German Blitz = English "lightning"), which had been a commercial success, widely used also within the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's military. Originally, the logo for this truck consisted of two stripes arranged loosely like a lightning symbol with the words "Opel" and "Blitz" in them, in later, 1950s models simplified to the horizontal form of a lightning which appears in the current Opel logo. The jag in the lightning always follows the original from the "Opel Blitz" text stripes, in the form of a horizontally stretched letter "Z".
Styling wise, the Corsa OPC/VXR get more aggressive body kits with new bumpers, aluminium frames for the fog lights, a small scoop in the hood, a big roof spoiler and twin pipe Remus exhaust with a diffuser. Inside, the Recaro performance seats take centre stage, with other upgrades including the flat bottomed leather steering wheel, OPC gear knob and sports pedals along, as well as OPC design instruments.[53]
Opel operates 10 vehicle, powertrain, and component plants and four development and test centres in six countries, and employs around 30,000 people in Europe. The brand sells vehicles in more than 60 markets worldwide. Other plants are in Eisenach and Kaiserslautern, Germany; Szentgotthárd, Hungary; Zaragoza, Spain; Gliwice, and Tychy, Poland; Aspern, Austria; Ellesmere Port, and Luton, Great Britain.[37] The Dudenhofen Test Center is located near the company's headquarters and is responsible for all technical testing and vehicle validations.
The 1.0 L and 1.2 L Ecotec Family 0 engines are carry overs from the Corsa B; the 1.4 L Family 1 engine was replaced with a new 1.4 L Family 0 model. The 1.8 L Family 1 engine is an upgrade for the previous 1.6 L 16 valve engine and produces 125 PS (92 kW) and 165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) of torque. The edition with the 1.8 L engine was named Corsa GSi and was the predecessor of the new Corsa OPC.
Cu un volum al portbagajului de 410 litri și design tipic de SUV, Crossland X oferă cea mai mare capacitate din clasa sa, putând fi extinsă până la 1.255 litri. De asemenea, ai multe posibilități de a face autovehiculul mai spațios: scaunele spate pot fi deplasate¹ și sunt pliabile în raport 40/60, cotierele pot fi rabatate pentru transportul obiectelor mai lungi și înălțimea până la partea inferioară a portbagajului poate fi dublată.
The Opel Corsa also keeps up with its competitors in terms of luggage space. With 286 liters of trunk space, an acceptible amount for storing 2 large or 3 medium-sized suitcases, most travelers will be able to fit whatever they need for their trip. For smaller travel groups who won't utilize the rear seating, the back seats can be folded down, providing additional luggage space totalling 1100 liters. 
The Opel Kadett D was also built in South Africa by General Motors South African (Pty) Ltd. The South African range was made up of four-door fastback sedans, five-door hatchbacks, and a five-door estate model called the Voyage.[19] The engines used are Opel's 1.2 litre overhead valve inline-four (L models only), or the OHC 1.3 liter (GL, GLS, and Voyage). Power is 60 PS (44 kW) and 75 PS (55 kW) respectively.[19] Later a 1.6 liter was added and also a 1.8 in the GTE performance model.
Whether you're using the standard or 180° panorama review camera, you enjoy better vision of what's behind and around you. This helps you detect any potential hazards that may be behind or in your blind spots. With the zoom functionality, you get to see objects even better as it automatically switches on to objects closer than 70cm. Coupled with Advanced Park Assist, you can parallel park and exit parking spots handsfree.
Explore 2019 Mercedes Benz S550, performance and technology features. See models and pricing, as well as photos and videos. We reviews the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 Price where consumers can find detailed information on specs, fuel economy, transmission and safety. Inside, the 2019 Mercedes Benz S550 is equally cluttered. Its dashboard is upright and puts local weather and audio controls […] 

Power first came from 1.0 L 45 hp, 1.2 L 55 hp, 1.3 L 70 hp and 1.4 L 75 hp petrol engines. (The first engines were all equipped with carburetors; fuel injection came later, but never for the 1.0.) The engines were based on the well proven Family II design,[citation needed] except for the 1.0 L and early 1.2 L engines, which were based on the OHV unit from the Kadett C.
“Demand for small SUV and crossover models tailored for urban traffic is increasing significantly. The Crossland X with its combination of cool, SUV-inspired design, outstanding connectivity and high practicality represents a second strong competitor in this vehicle class next to our sporty Mokka X,” said Opel CEO Dr. Karl-Thomas Neumann. “Our agile Crossland X delivers on driving pleasure while oozing urban lifestyle, making it perfect for the city and escapes to the countryside.”
What I love about this series of videos is their diversity. According to the literature, this Kadett was produced for three years, so obtaining parts for the restoration must have been very challenging. Production of the 1 liter, OHV, I4 engine starts with this car, and continues for 30 years, with minor variations. From the beginning the engine had advanced features for the period such as aluminum pistons; a hydraulically tensioned, chain driven cam shaft; hollow push rods; and an aluminum intake manifold. The fact that this engine has never been apart says a thing or two about their longevity.

All four tyres had to be of the same make and model, and all four tyres had to be replaced at the same time — if one tyre was damaged or punctured, the three remaining good tyres also had to be replaced. In addition there were other maintenance requirements which were both exacting and unusual. Neglect of these points through ignorance or a misconceived attempt to save money was common, and was likely to lead to very expensive failures of the transfer gearbox.[11]


In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to buy Opel, its British sister brand Vauxhall and their European auto lending business from General Motors for US$2.2 billion.[32][33] In return, General Motors will pay PSA US$3.2 billion for future European pension obligations and keep managing US$9.8 billion worth of plans for existing retirees. Furthermore, GM is responsible for paying about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing Great Britain and Germany pension plans.[32]
The high performance of the new Corsa GSi is complemented by the athletic exterior looks featuring large air intakes, sculptured bonnet, prominent rear spoiler and precisely modelled side sills. From the front, the bold Opel GSi fascia with large honeycomb grille and the central Opel Blitz supported by two wings, along with the exterior rear view mirror housings in carbon racing-look become visible. The large chrome-ringed design elements that are visually connected in a horizontal line via black crosspieces running across the front, along with the black traverse cleat on the bonnet support the impression of sportiness. The vibrant styling is also present when viewed from the rear. The prominent spoiler on the edge of the roof creates additional downforce, the sporty chrome tailpipe is framed by the vibrant design of the rear apron in body colour.
Joseph DeBattista and his son, Joey, acquired this Lapis Blue wonder after trading a Volkswagen. Owing to its rarity, they had to be creative with the restoration. While Joey was hunting for parts on eBay, his father bent metal to perfection, slowly completing a car that will always remain an underdog, a nice conversation starter, and a fail-proof daily driver. Just ask Richard Hammond, if you need more proof.
But how was Opel/PSA able to shave off so much fat from the hatchback? For starters, all engines will be made from aluminum (-15 kg / 33 lbs), much like the hood (-2.4 kg / 5.3 lbs). The optimized seats (-5.5 kg / 12.1 lbs front and -4.5 kg / 10 lbs rear) contribute to this significant weight loss, while the insulating material used throughout the cabin is also a new weight-saving development. The most important diet is found in the body-in-white, which is a term referring to the body panels being joined together before adding the engine, sub-assemblies, and trim. The new BIW is an impressive 40 kg (88 lbs) lighter than the old one.
The Carnection thing was only part of Behlmann’s problems. The fact that no one was buying full-size conversion vans anymore surely couldn’t have helped. Behlmann was by far the biggest dealer in the country for those things. The ’90s SUV craze was a little slower to take hold in STL because Behlmann’s volume allowed them to sell big conversion vans for not much more than a loaded up SUV. Those vans were EVERYWHERE!

Rüsselsheim/Geneva. Opel is paving the way to the future by providing even more information, services and safety in cars. The Rüsselsheim-based carmaker is presenting the personal mobility services offered by Opel OnStar – after already announcing the intention to bring Opel OnStar to Europe last year – at the International Motor Show in Geneva (Hall 2, Stand number 2231) ...
¹Opțional. Funcționează automat între 5 km/h și 85 km/h. Între 5 și 30 km/h, decelerarea pentru reducerea vitezei de impact este de 0,9 g. Într 30 și 85 km/h, sistemul reduce viteza cu maxim 22 km/h. După acest prag, șoferul trebuie să frâneze singur pentru a reduce și mai mult viteza. Gama de viteze de funcționare a AEBPD depinde de obstacolul detectat (mobil: între 5 și 85 km/h; fix: între 5 și 80 km/h; pietoni: între 5 și 60 km/h). Sistemele Opel de asistență pentru șofer au rolul de a asista șoferul în cadrul limitărilor imanente ale sistemului. Șoferul rămâne responsabil pentru sarcinile conducerii. Se preconizează că va fi disponibil din toamna anului 2017.
FlexFix is an optional integrated bicycle rack. It is essentially a concealed drawer that can be pulled out from the car's rear bumper. Attached are two wheel mount bike racks, rear number plate incorporated in the system, brake/tail lights, indicators and fog and reverse light alternates in left-hand drive and right-hand drive cars. It is available as an option on Exclusiv, SE and SXi models in the United Kingdom.
The Corsa in particular will give Opel additional impetus this year. The bestseller, the first generation of which made its world premiere 37 years ago, will be available for the first time with a purely electric variant. Lohscheller promises that the pricing will be competitive: “With the new Corsa we will make electric mobility accessible to many customers – it will be a real electric car for the people.”

At the first round of the season held at the former Grand Prix track of Zolder in Belgium, Opel Team Joest’s misfortunes continued. Manuel Reuter retired in the early stages, with both John Winter (16th) and Keke Rosberg finishing a lap down on winner Alessandro Nannini (ITA) in the Alfa. Race 2 was more positive however, with only John Winter dropping early on. Reuter lead the Opel charge in 7th, with Rosberg in 10th.
CO2 emissions figures are determined according to the WLTP test cycle however, a Government formula is then applied to translate these figures back to what they would have been under the outgoing NEDC test cycle, which WLTP replaces. The correct tax treatment is then applied. Figures are intended for comparability purposes only. The fuel consumption you achieve under real life driving conditions and CO2 produced will depend upon a number of factors, including the accessories fitted after registration, variations in driving styles, weather conditions and vehicle load. Only compare fuel consumption and CO2 with other vehicles tested using the same technical procedures. For more information on official fuel consumption and CO2 emission values and cycle-specific fuel consumption and CO2 figures, please visit www.vauxhall.co.uk/wltp
Launched in 1962, GM Europe's small car for the 1960s, the Opel Kadett, looked like a shrunk Chevy Nova, and hid a 1.0-liter water-cooled overhead-valve four-cylinder up its nose. While this motor had pre-War origins, it was a good one. It weighed just 211 lbs, revved beyond 6000 rpm, and made 54 horsepower in the high-compression 'S' version, as long as you used premium fuel.

The Corsa in particular will give Opel additional impetus this year. The bestseller, the first generation of which made its world premiere 37 years ago, will be available for the first time with a purely electric variant. Lohscheller promises that the pricing will be competitive: “With the new Corsa we will make electric mobility accessible to many customers – it will be a real electric car for the people.”


The Kadett E was introduced as the Chevrolet Kadett, and its station wagon version was called the Chevrolet Ipanema. The latter had three doors until model year 1993, when five doors became mandatory. The hatchback was only available with three doors, and the sedan was never offered. Brazilian production of the hatchback commenced in April 1989, with the Ipanema being added in October. From 1991 all versions featured fuel injection. Brazilian cars received either 1.8 or 2.0-litre petrol or ethanol fours. The Ipanema was discontinued in 1996, and the Kadett, in 1998.[28]
German manufacturer Opel and its British sister Vauxhall have committed to no less than eight all-new or refreshed models before 2020, with a focus on growth segments. Of these eight models, three will be all-new versions of the Corsa light hatch, Vivaro van, and the successor to the Mokka X small crossover, the former two scheduled for launch next year, while the latter will hit the European market in 2020...
In the early 1990s, South African Kadett GSi's were further upgraded based on their success in production car racing and initially 500 special units were built as road cars for homologation purposes. This was a minimum requirement for entry into the Stannic Group N races. They went against BMW's 325iS (A 2.7 litre homologation special from BMW). They featured more aggressive 276-degree camshafts made by Schrick with 2 different settings for timing overlap (110° and 107°), revised intake and exhaust modifications (4-in-1 branch manifold and freeflow exhaust), Irmscher spring kit, modified engine management system by Promotec, a limited slip differential developed by Andre Verwey and special Aluett 7Jx15-inch ET35 alloy wheels, they were nicknamed the "Superboss"[29] and held the world record for the most torque per litre (114 Nm per litre) for a naturally aspirated car until 2009 being beaten by the Ferrari 458 (117 Nm per litre). After the first 500 units were produced, many more were built to satisfy public demand.

Throughout the production run, several special edition models were launched. Customers who chose a Calibra Cliff Motorsport Edition in May 1996 were way ahead of the game. Its paintwork was the same as the Class 1 racing car in which Manuel Reuter would win the ITC championship for Opel at the end of the season. The street-legal Cliff racer had a 20 mm lower sports chassis and BBS light alloy wheels (7J x 16).
^ Jump up to: a b c Note: The powertrain plant Opel Wien GmbH in Aspern/Vienna (Austria) is not a subsidiary of Adam Opel AG but a first-tier subsidiary of General Motors Europe Limited (GME) (99.5%) and of GM AUTOMOTIVE UK (GMAUK) (0.5%), see "Opel Wien GmbH, FN 110500a". FirmenABC Marketing GmbH. Retrieved 3 April 2017. Both, GME and GMAUK, are located in Luton. GME Ltd. itself is a daughter company of GM CME Holdings CV, which is directly controlled by the General Motors Corporation (GMC), see "Name: GENERAL MOTORS EUROPE LIMITED, Company Number: 07556915". Company search, Made Simple Group Ltd. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
From the late 1930s to the 1980s, terms from the German Navy (Kapitän, Admiral, Kadett) and from other official sectors (Diplomat, Senator) were often used as model names. Since the late 1980s, the model names of Opel passenger cars end with an a. As Opels were no longer being sold in Great Britain, no need remained to have separate model names for essentially identical Vauxhall and Opel cars (although some exceptions were made to suit the British market). The last series to be renamed across the two companies was the Opel Kadett, being the only Opel to take the name of its Vauxhall counterpart, as Opel Astra. Although only two generations of Astra were built prior to the 1991 model, the new car was referred to across Europe as the Astra F, referring to its Kadett lineage. Until 1993, the Opel Corsa was known as the Vauxhall Nova in Great Britain, as Vauxhall had initially felt that Corsa sounded too much like "coarse", and would not catch on.

Things are a little better up front, where we find driver and passenger seats approved by the Aktion Gesunder Rucken, or German Bad Back Association. They are truly, properly comfortable, and even long journeys fail to induce numb-bum, nor thigh-tremble. It does go a bit downhill from there though. The fascia and instrument panel are pulled, more or less directly, from the Corsa hatch, which means everything’s reasonably well made, but a bit dour and glum in appearance. That contrasts sharply to the quirkier, more welcoming interiors of the Crossland’s French cousins. There are good things – the seven-inch IntelliLink touchscreen is clear and good to use, albeit it has a slightly messy menu system, but the main dials look drab, and items such as the column stalks actually feel quite fragile and cheap.
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