The Crossland X was introduced in 2017 as a replacement to the Opel/Vauxhall Meriva. It offers more crossover styling but similar practicality as its predecessor, as the segment of small MPVs has been shrinking in Europe, while small crossovers and SUVs continue to gain popularity across the continent. The Crossland X is based on the same platform as the Citroën C3 Aircross, which will be launched later. In Opel’s line-up, the Crossland X will be positioned below the Opel/Vauxhall Mokka X, but both compete in the same segment of small crossovers.
The Corsa D was created using a new version of the SCCS platform, which was co developed by General Motors/Opel and Fiat,[40] and is also employed by the 2006 Fiat Grande Punto. The first official pictures of the Corsa D, were released by Opel in May 2006. In the United Kingdom, What Car? awarded it 2007 Car of the Year. The Corsa D placed second in the European Car of the Year for 2006, only behind the Ford S-Max.
The Corsa in particular will give Opel additional impetus this year. The bestseller, the first generation of which made its world premiere 37 years ago, will be available for the first time with a purely electric variant. Lohscheller promises that the pricing will be competitive: “With the new Corsa we will make electric mobility accessible to many customers – it will be a real electric car for the people.”
An Opel Corsa rental, also sold under the Vauxhall moniker with the same name, offers travelers a highly fuel efficient choice for their upcoming trip to Europe. The Opel Corsa averages between 47 to 73 miles to the gallon, depending on the engine variant, with the diesel option offering the best fuel economy. Capable of seating 5 passengers, the Corsa is a excellent option for smal families or groups, though tall passengersmay find the back seat to get a little cramped on long drives. In terms of luggage capacity, the Opel Corsa is similar to other Economy class car options, providing 286 liters of trunk space, capable of storing 2 large, or 3 medium suitcases. Even after the trunk is at maximum capacity, there is still some room left over for a few small personal items. Travelers in need of extra luggage space can fold down the rear seats to bring the total luggage capacity to 1100 liters. Overall, the Opel Corsa is a perfect choice for economically minded travelers.
Opel will use reasonable efforts to ensure that the contents of this Site are accurate and up to date but does not accept any liability for any claims or losses arising from a reliance upon the contents of the Site. Some of the information on this Site may not be correct due to product changes which may have occurred since it was launched. Some of the equipment described or shown may only be available in certain countries or may be available only at extra cost. Opel reserves the right to change product specifications at any time. For the actual product specifications in your country, please consult your Opel dealer.
The handling and ride are basically fine, but are all but invisible from the point of view of a keen driver. The Crossland is tidy through corners, with reasonable steering weight but no actual feedback, and the body tilts over only to a reasonable angle. The ride is a touch stiff in its damping, especially around town (which is disappointing, given that any Crossland will probably spend most of its life in town) but it does improve on the open road. Refinement is only average though with quite a bit of wind and road noise. There’s little point in having Opel’s phone-based OnStar concierge service fitted if you can’t hear what the operator is saying . . .

Replacing the orange for radiant tones of red and teal blue everywhere, it was the same in Brazil. I miss those days… at least when the loans got popularity we still could buy funny and long lasting products (Philips included) however today… I’m not surprised the 70’s and 80’s music are still popular as the cars of that time, everything today is carefully made to make us bored.

Datorită poziției înalte de ședere, Crossland X oferă mai mult decât o vizibilitate mai bună. Datorită scaunelor sale ergonomice speciale (certificate de „Campania pentru un spate sănătos”), Crossland asigură o postură sănătoasă în timpul conducerii. Un autovehicul adaptat nevoilor tale, confortabil pentru toți ocupanții datorită pernelor, spătarelor și tetierelor reglabile.


But the hot news of the new Kadett B line was the mid-year 1966 introduction of the Rally. Sporting both fog and driving lights, as well as the obligatory racing stripes, the Rally was something altogether new in the small-car market: the first really overt attempt to sell sportiness in the lowest end of the small-car market, at least in the USA. The Ford Cortina GT had been doing it for a few years, but was one class bigger and a fair bit more expensive. The Opel Rally set the template for all the little pocket rockets to come; just like with the big American muscle cars, blatant economy was out, and performance, or at least the impersonation of it, were in.

In November 2010, a facelift was announced. A revised front end was the most dramatic difference over its predecessor, consisting of a new grille, a restyled front bumper and new 'Eagle Eye' headlamps (introduced on the Insignia) which contain daytime running lamps, standard across the refreshed Corsa range. (Vauxhall versions gained the latest badge from 2008 on the front grille, tailgate and steering wheel). A new 'Touch and Connect' multimedia system from Bosch was made available as an option on certain Corsas, replacing the CD60 unit.[47] Alloy wheels are upgraded on SXI, SE and OPC/VXR versions. Production ended in the end of 2014, with the Adam styled Corsa E released.[48]


After the Second World War the Soviet Union requested the tooling from the Opel Rüsselsheim car plant in the American occupation zone as part of the war reparations agreed by the victorious powers, to compensate for the loss of the production lines for the domestic KIM-10-52 in the siege of Moscow. Faced with a wide range of German "small litrage" models to choose from, Soviet planners wanted a car which closely followed the general type of the KIM – a 4-door sedan with all-metal body and 4-stroke engine. They therefore rejected both the rear-engined, two-door KdF-Wagen (future VW Beetle) and the two-stroke powered, front-wheel-drive, wooden-bodied DKW F8, built by the Auto Union Chemnitz plant in the Soviet occupation zone. The closest analog of the KIM to be found was the 4-door Kadett K38.[7]
For starters, the vehicle features numerous storage spaces for everyday items throughout the cabin. In addition, the rear seats are capable of sliding back and forth by up to 150 millimeters (6 inches), increasing the space in the second row, which is particularly useful for passengers with long legs, or increasing capacity of the luggage compartment.

The Carnection thing was only part of Behlmann’s problems. The fact that no one was buying full-size conversion vans anymore surely couldn’t have helped. Behlmann was by far the biggest dealer in the country for those things. The ’90s SUV craze was a little slower to take hold in STL because Behlmann’s volume allowed them to sell big conversion vans for not much more than a loaded up SUV. Those vans were EVERYWHERE!
Despite its age, the Opel/Vauxhall Corsa was ranked #10 in Europe's best-selling cars top last year. An all-new model is right around the corner and it should help the supermini put up a good fight against other subcompact hatchbacks like the next-gen Renault Clio and Peugeot 208. Today, Opel is releasing some technical details about its revamped five-door-only city car, emphasizing on the diet it’ll be going through for its sixth iteration.
¹Opțional. Funcționează automat între 5 km/h și 85 km/h. Între 5 și 30 km/h, decelerarea pentru reducerea vitezei de impact este de 0,9 g. Într 30 și 85 km/h, sistemul reduce viteza cu maxim 22 km/h. După acest prag, șoferul trebuie să frâneze singur pentru a reduce și mai mult viteza. Gama de viteze de funcționare a AEBPD depinde de obstacolul detectat (mobil: între 5 și 85 km/h; fix: între 5 și 80 km/h; pietoni: între 5 și 60 km/h). Sistemele Opel de asistență pentru șofer au rolul de a asista șoferul în cadrul limitărilor imanente ale sistemului. Șoferul rămâne responsabil pentru sarcinile conducerii. Se preconizează că va fi disponibil din toamna anului 2017.
The Corsa is a supermini introduced by General Motors’ European subsidiary Opel in 1983 and produced until today. It has also been sold under a variety of other brands (most notably Vauxhall, Chevrolet and Holden) and names and spawned various derivatives in different markets, all of which are listed in appropriate sections below.Despite its global presence, it has never been sold in the United States or Canada.
Clever design tweaks set the KARL ROCKS apart from most of its A-segment rivals. The functional silver roof rails, rugged front and rear bumpers with integrated skid pads, front and rear wheelhouse moldings and unique 15-inch bi-color-look alloy wheels blend in perfectly with typical Opel design cues such as the Opel blade that sweeps dynamically up towards the rear. Combined with the sloping roofline this creates a dynamic, sporty appearance that links the KARL ROCKS to the KARL while simultaneously giving it a distinct rugged look.
The next step for Opel was the resumption of passenger car production. It might have seemed easiest to bring back the Kapitän first since its engine was already in production for the truck, but occupation regulations restricted German civilians to cars of 1.5 L or less, which made the Olympia the obvious candidate. Under Dr Ing e.h. Karl Stief, who had been chief engineer at Opel since 1934, useful changes were made to this tough little car. The Dubonnet front suspension was replaced by a conventional coil-and-wishbone layout and the steering was correspondingly rearranged.
The incarnation of classic car enthusiasm is spelled DeBattista. Joe and his dad Joseph are not just passionate collectors of classic cars but also gifted mechanics who built and restored cars to Concours perfection. Like my 65 Jensen CV-8, which had been painstakingly ground up restored by them in record breaking time. Joe and his dad personally delivered the car from San Francisco to LA a couple of hours before the car entered the Greystone Concours de Elegance in 2014… and won the ‘Best Restoration’ award. Unforgettable moments with Joe and Joseph DeBattista.
The incarnation of classic car enthusiasm is spelled DeBattista. Joe and his dad Joseph are not just passionate collectors of classic cars but also gifted mechanics who built and restored cars to Concours perfection. Like my 65 Jensen CV-8, which had been painstakingly ground up restored by them in record breaking time. Joe and his dad personally delivered the car from San Francisco to LA a couple of hours before the car entered the Greystone Concours de Elegance in 2014… and won the ‘Best Restoration’ award. Unforgettable moments with Joe and Joseph DeBattista.
Opel's relationship to GM in America during the war has been disputed. Alfred P. Sloan's memoir indicates that when the war started, as Germany nationalised many foreign-owned industrial assets, GM's contact with Opel was broken and remained that way for the rest of the war. Other writers have alleged that even after June 1940, official connections between Opel and America were not broken, and monetary gain by Americans continued throughout the war.[citation needed]
Sloan suggested that GM take the helm of Opel again for a two-year "probationary" period to see whether the economic conditions, then called "close to stagnation" in Germany, would improve. Sloan set other important goals: "General Motors should risk no additional capital in Opel. Credit facilities should be available. We should have complete freedom in personnel policies and administration. The products produced by Adam Opel AG should be solely within the jurisdiction of management, and if prices had to be approved by government authority, a reasonable return on the capital should be allowed."
The manufacturer now offered two versions of the Kadett, designated the "Kadett KJ38 and the "Kadett K38" the latter also being sold as the "Kadett Spezial". Mechanically and in terms of published performance there was little to differentiate the two, but the "Spezial" had a chrome stripe below the window line, and extra external body trim in other areas such as on the front grill. The interior of the "Spezial" was also better equipped. To the extent that the 300 Mark saving for buyers of the car reflected reduced production costs, the major difference was that the more basic "KJ38" lost the synchromous springing with which the car had been launched, and which continued to be fitted on the "Spezial". The base car instead reverted to traditional rigid axle based suspension similar to that fitted on the old Opel P4.
The Kadett C appeared in August 1973[12] and was Opel's version of the General Motors' "T-Car". It was the last small Opel to feature rear-wheel drive, and remained in production at Opel's Bochum plant until July 1979, by which time Opel had produced 1,701,076. Of these, 52% had been exported outside West Germany,[13] most of them to markets in other parts of western Europe.
The saloon model was built and sold in Latin America as the Chevrolet Corsa Classic until 2010, when it was replaced with the model previously released for China in 2005 as the Buick Sail. A budget version introduced for the Brazilian market, the Chevrolet Celta, has bodywork resembling the end of the 1990s Vectra and Astra. The Celta was sold in Argentina as the Suzuki Fun for a certain period.
World War II brought to Rüsselsheim the only year in the history of Opel – 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufacturer in Europe. The combination of Opel know-how with GM resources had produced outstanding results. In spite of stifling red tape, the economic atmosphere in Germany in the 1930s had powerfully fertilised the growth of this and other auto companies, but in the case of Opel, at least, the expansion of this industrial machine clearly was not directed in any way toward military objectives.
Strangely, the joint-venture was announced several years ago. Then, just as the Crossland X and C3 Aircross hit showrooms, PSA decided to buy GM Europe – the company that owns Vauxhall. So this pair are a preview of a future strategy in which all Vauxhalls, Peugeots, Citroens and DSs will draw from shared engineering, like the VW Group’s brands have done for years.
The Opel brand is present in the most of Europe, in parts of North Africa, in South Africa, the Middle East, in Chile and in Singapore.[50] Their models have been rebadged and sold in other countries and continents, such as Vauxhall in Great Britain, Chevrolet in Latin America, Holden in Australia and New Zealand, and previously, Saturn in the United States and Canada. Following the demise of General Motors Corporation's Saturn division in North America, Opel cars are currently rebadged and sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico,[51] and China under the Buick name with models such as the Opel Insignia/Buick Regal, Opel Astra sedan/Buick Verano (both which share underpinnings with the Chevrolet Cruze), and Opel Mokka/Buick Encore.
Opel released in 2010 a minor facelift for the Corsa range which comprised only technical updates and exterior or interior modifications. The German manufacturer however claimed that it also applied a bunch of improvements over the car's chassis, enhancing comfort and ride quality. Each engine underwent an upgrade to become more fuel efficient and to produce less emissions, regardless if we...
Announced in November 1947, production of the postwar Olympia, with austere painted hubcaps, began in December 1948 and allowed a modest return to export sales in that year. In October 1948, the Kapitän came back to the Opel line-up, unchanged except for such details as the shape of the headlights and improvements in the leaf springs and dampers. Prices in 1948 were 9950 DM for the Kapitän and 6,785 DM for the Olympia (the Deutschmark having replaced the Reichsmark on 20 June 1948).
If compact fuel-efficiency is what you're looking for in your new or pre-owned Opel, the Crossland X will be right up your alley. Dynamic and versatile to the core, it's sharp lines may look deliciously imposing, but it also offers the added benefit of improving overall aerodynamics, which brings down that fuel bill considerably. Throw in some low rolling-resistance tyres and you'll see why the Crossland X is being touted as one of South Africa's most efficient SUVs.
The Kadett clearly featurt a muckle mair modren design than the Volkswagen Beetle which then dominatit the mercat for smaw family caurs in Germany an various surroondin kintras. The Kadett affered mair passenger space, massively mair luggage space an a muckle less encumbered view oot. Its watter cooled ingine enabled it tae provide a far mair effective heater. Even fuel consumption wis unner maist conditions superior tae that o the Volkswagen, an mony commentators muckle preferred the Opel's handlin an its licht an effective brakes tae those o the mercat leader.
All four tyres had to be of the same make and model, and all four tyres had to be replaced at the same time — if one tyre was damaged or punctured, the three remaining good tyres also had to be replaced. In addition there were other maintenance requirements which were both exacting and unusual. Neglect of these points through ignorance or a misconceived attempt to save money was common, and was likely to lead to very expensive failures of the transfer gearbox.[11]
Intelligent lightweight design begins on the computer, using the newest virtual development methods. The specific use of various steel grades and connection methods enabled the Corsa’s big weight reduction. This includes the consistent use of high-strength and ultra-high-strength steels, as well as the optimization of load paths, connections, structure and form. Compared with the previous model, the body-in-white is 40kg lighter. The next Corsa is based on the multi-energy platform for small and compact cars, which allows a variety of propulsion systems. Customers can choose from combustion engines or the all-electric version.
Power first came from 1.0 L 45 hp, 1.2 L 55 hp, 1.3 L 70 hp and 1.4 L 75 hp petrol engines. (The first engines were all equipped with carburetors; fuel injection came later, but never for the 1.0.) The engines were based on the well proven Family II design,[citation needed] except for the 1.0 L and early 1.2 L engines, which were based on the OHV unit from the Kadett C.
There were two distinct generations of the Kadett B: 1966-1967, and the 1968-1973. Bob Lutz had a hand in the key feature that distinguished the two. The torque-tube/leaf-spring rear suspension was replaced for 1968 by a coil-spring and control-arm set-up, designed to both improve ride and handling, especially in reducing the Kadett’s tendency to tippiness. Bob had recently arrived at Opel, where he mentioned that the Kadett had a bit of a rep in the US for being a bit tippy, especially in a J-turn maneuver. The engineers told him that the new rear suspension (seen here in this picture) would eliminate that, and invited him to see for himself. The result is self-evident (full story here).

+++) Sve navedene vrednosti odnose se na osnovni EU model sa standardnom opremom. Podaci o potrošnji goriva i emisiji CO2 određeni su u skladu s uredbama R EC br. 715/2007 i R (EC) br. 692/2008 (u odgovarajućim verzijama), uzimajući u obzir masu vozila u voznom stanju, kako je navedeno u uredbama. Dodatna oprema i fabrički ugrađene opcije mogu voditi nešto višim vrednostima za potrošnju i emisiju CO2 od navedenih. Vrednosti za potrošnju goriva i emisiju CO2 ne odnose se ni na jedno vozilo posebno i nisu deo ponude. Ovde su date samo u cilju poređenja različitih vozila, ali se mogu razlikovati od konkretne potrošnje goriva pri vožnji u realnim uslovima, koja u velikoj meri zavisi od stila vožnje i uslova eksploatacije. Dodatna oprema može povećati masu praznog vozila i, u nekim slučajevima, dozvoljeno osovinsko opterećenje kao i dozvoljenu ukupnu masu vozila i smanjiti dozvoljenu masu prikolice pod punim teretom. Ovo može dovesti do smanjenja maksimalne brzine i povećanja vremena ubrzanja. Vozne performanse podrazumevaju vozača od 75 kg i 125 kg tereta. 2 H gas u m3/100 km.


Sistem automatskog kočenja u hitnim situacijama1 prepoznaje pešake i druga vozila koja ste možda prevideli. Pri brzinama između 5 i 85 km/h, sistem konstantno meri razdaljinu do drugih vozila i upozorava vas ako vam prilaze prevelikom brzinom / ako je razdaljina prekratka. Ako ne reagujete, sistem automatski započinje kočenje u slučaju opasnosti i smanjuje brzinu vozila. Pri brzinama ispod 30 km/h, automobil će kočiti do potpunog zaustavljanja.
The Crossland’s rear seats are rather more vanilla than that. They split-fold, alright, with a slim centre section doubling up as a ski-hatch or arm-rest, and they do slide back and forth. That can liberate a seriously large amount of extra boot space, as when the rear seats are in the slid-forward position, the boot expands from 410-litres to a whopping 520-litres. At last, a small SUV with a boot big enough for a family. The unfortunate compromise is, obviously, in rear seat room. Maximise the boot, and you’ll be lucky to fit anyone at all in the back. Minimise the boot and, er, to be honest, there’s still not great space back there. It’s adequate, but no more than that.
A rare "Sport" model was produced in 1985 to homologate for the sub 1,300 cc class of Group A for the British Rally Championship.[citation needed] These sport models were white and came with unique vinyl decals, a 13SB engine with twin Weber 40 DCOE carburettors, an optional bespoke camshaft, a replacement rear silencer, and few luxuries. This gave 93 hp and a top speed of 112 mph (180 km/h) with a 0–60 mph time of 8.9 seconds. These are by far the rarest models (500 produced) and thus acquire a high market price if one does become available.
We took the ferry from Newhaven to Dieppe and then headed down to Forges-les-Eaux, along winding D-roads through quiet villages and dense forests, scenes to be repeated over the following three days. What you notice immediately about the Calibra is how civilised it is. That V6 engine is a gem, not especially powerful by today’s standards but honestly quick and genuinely refined.

EUR 24,780JPY 3,047,940BGN 48,465CZK 638,110DKK 185,084GBP 21,490HUF 8,034,419PLN 106,705RON 117,990SEK 267,104CHF 28,019ISK 3,414,684NOK 242,819HRK 183,652RUB 1,814,154TRY 167,840AUD 40,049BRL 110,873CAD 37,460CNY 191,430HKD 218,342IDR 401,414,194ILS 99,484INR 1,958,549KRW 33,036,696MXN 533,211MYR 116,015NZD 42,265PHP 1,459,492SGD 38,077THB 876,270ZAR 395,851
The Kadett E (Vauxhall Astra Mark 2 in the United Kingdom) was introduced in August 1984, and was voted the 1985 European Car of the Year.[21][22] The 1984 model was also developed into a more conventional three-box design with a boot (trunk), badged as the Vauxhall Belmont in the United Kingdom, launched at Frankfurt 1985. This was awarded the 1985 Semperit Irish Car of the Year in Ireland. There was a station wagon called the "Caravan" available, with either three or five doors. In South Africa, the Kadett notchback was sold as the Opel Monza, along with a convertible.[23] This replaced the Opel Ascona.[24]
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel[9] launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles, also known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation. The production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines.[10] At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets.
Using a gear-driven system, power was taken from the 6-speed sequential gearbox forward to the half-shafts, which appeared to embrace the raucous 54 degree V6. By doing this Opel had cleverly avoided a nose-heavy car, giving them a significant handling advantage. Weighing in at 1040 kg (2292 lbs)m the car looked like a serious challenger for Alfa Romeo.
The Corsa E has been around since 2014 essentially as a more thorough facelift of the model before it and it won’t be until towards the end of the decade when the supermini is going to be overhauled. The development phase has not been what we would call smooth sailing considering the major corporate change. We’re obviously talking about PSA’s decision to buy Opel/Vauxhall from General Motors, which is going to have a direct impact on the new Corsa.
I'm chalking this up as another car we never got in the States because of strange circumstances. And today, Buick sells some interesting Opels-badged-as-Buicks like the Regal GS (an Insignia) and the Verano (sort of an Astra sedan). They feel relatively German, which is an unusual thing for any product sold at a GM dealership here. I'm still waiting for that Astra GTC, which is kind of the Calibra of today. Something tells me that badging a hatchback so sleek and aggressive as a Buick might not work, though.

The Kadett E was introduced as the Chevrolet Kadett, and its station wagon version was called the Chevrolet Ipanema. The latter had three doors until model year 1993, when five doors became mandatory. The hatchback was only available with three doors, and the sedan was never offered. Brazilian production of the hatchback commenced in April 1989, with the Ipanema being added in October. From 1991 all versions featured fuel injection. Brazilian cars received either 1.8 or 2.0-litre petrol or ethanol fours. The Ipanema was discontinued in 1996, and the Kadett, in 1998.[28]

The Latin American Corsa received a small facelift in 1999, with smoother bumpers, and from April 2002 (when the new Corsa II was introduced) the Corsa B began being marketed as the "Corsa Classic"[27] until 2010, where it became the "Classic" when the Corsa B derived Chevrolet Sail and Chevrolet Celta replaced it. Production finally ceased in October 2016.[28]
The 2006 release of the fourth Corsa generation translates as rebirth. The German producer offered further reasons for the car to virtually sell itself. The V-inspired shaping of the car was more accentuated with bulgy lines and headlights as if some of the styling elements have been mounted into specially designed sockets. Apart form the looks, the engine line-up was converted and enhanced to c...
The Opel Kadett was reintroduced by Opel in 1962, with deliveries beginning on 2 October, a little more than 22 years after the original model was discontinued in May 1940.[1] Like the original Kadett, the new car (designated the "Kadett A") was a small family car, although it was now available in 2-door saloon, 3-door Car-A-Van (estate) and coupé versions.

The Opel Corsa also keeps up with its competitors in terms of luggage space. With 286 liters of trunk space, an acceptible amount for storing 2 large or 3 medium-sized suitcases, most travelers will be able to fit whatever they need for their trip. For smaller travel groups who won't utilize the rear seating, the back seats can be folded down, providing additional luggage space totalling 1100 liters. 
With these guidelines in mind, the Opel question was put again on 3 May to the GM financial policy committee, which then withdrew its objections to a return to Rüsselsheim. Many details still had to be worked out, both within GM and in the US-occupied zone of Germany, before this could actually occur. At last, the official word was released on 1 November 1948; GM resumed management control of Adam Opel AG. Edward W. Zdunek, formerly regional manager for Europe of General Motors Overseas Operations Division, was named managing director.
Automatic Emergency Braking with Pedestrian Detection works automatically at speeds between 5 and 140km/h. For speeds between 5 and 30km/h a 0.9g deceleration is applied to reduce the impact speed of the collision. For speeds of 30 to 140km/h the system reduces the speed by up to 50km/h. To reduce speed by over 50km/h the driver needs to provide additional braking. The operational speed range depends on the type of obstacle detected:
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